Ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are main stroke subtypes. Brain imaging remains the gold standard for differentiating those stroke subtypes but performing a computerized tomography or MRI scan requires hospital admittance of patients with acute stroke suspicion. Therefore, in the pre-hospital setting, no diagnosis-specific measures can be applied, such as lowering of increased blood pressure in case of acute ICH or the rapid reversal of anticoagulation in the presence of warfarin-associated ICH or administering tPA to ischemic stroke patients that might be treated on site or in the ambulance as for myocardial infarction. Thus, having a near-patient test to differentiate between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the preclinical setting would be desirable.
|P02741||CRP||Independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, elevated plasma CRP levels significantly predict the risk of future ischemic stroke and TIA in the elderly. In ischemic stroke patients, high CRP circulating levels within 24h from onset are associated with poor long-term functional outcome . No clear association has been found with aetiological classification of ischemic stroke. No diferences at plasma levels between hemorragic and ischemic stroke.||Ischemic stroke|
|P02768||ALBU||Baseline Ischemia-Modified Albumin (IMA) blood levels may be a biomarker for early identification of acute stroke, but not to differentiate Ischemic from hemorrhagic stroke patients. On the other hand, serum albumin is decreased in those patients who die following a stroke. No significant association has been found between vWf levels and aetiological subtypes of ischemic stroke. No ignificant difference at plasma level between stroke subtypes.||Ischemic stroke|
|P04271||S100B||Higher levels of S100B in ischemic stroke patients than healthy controls, showing a trend to be higher in those patients with poor outcome at third month after stroke. Also, high S100B leves have been associated with hemorrhagic transformation and brain edema. No clear association has been found between S100B levels and aetiological classification of ischemic stroke. Higher plasma levels were found in intracerebral hemorrhage than ischemic stroke patients.||Intracerebral hemorrhage|
|P14136||GFAP||Associated with astroglial tissue damage. Increased levels of GFAp have been found in stroke patients when compared to mimics. Raised GFAP is detected in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages than in ischemic stroke patients.||Intracerebral hemorrhage|
|P16860||ANFB||High circulating levels of BNP/NT-proBNP are associated with poor outcome after stroke, although only minor predictive value is added to clinical information . High BNP levels indicate an embolic origin for stroke patients. Similar levels have been determined in both subtypes of stroke.||Ischemic stroke|
|Q15109||RAGE||RAGE has been associated with ischemic stroke, and it may be a plasma biomarker to differenciate ischemic from hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic stroke patients present raised plasma levels than hemorrhagic stroke patients.||Ischemic stroke|