Despite improvements in current treatments for the management of vascular risk factors, first or even recurrent vascular events still occur in a high proportion of patients. As an example, FDA has approved the use of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (PLAC test) to predict the risk of developing of stroke among healthy individuals. Lp-PLA 2 is a serine lipase which circulates mainly linked to low-density lipoproteins known to be a good predictor of both first-ever and recurrent strokes in population-based studies. Such type of strategies will allow increasing vascular prevention strategies among the highest risk people.
The identification of people with silent brain infarction is another great opportunity in the field of biomarkers since those have huge risk of suffering an overt stroke or dementia. Once stroke occurred to better know risk of recurrence or individual response to secondary prevention is critical.
|P02671||FIBA||Higher levels of circulating fibrinogen are associated with long-term poor outcome and death after stroke and with increased risk of ischemic stroke, but not provides incremental value over traditional risk factors. The association between fibrinogen levels and aetiological subtypes of ischemic strokes is not concordant in different studies.||Stroke|
|P02741||CRP||Independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, elevated plasma CRP levels significantly predict the risk of future ischemic stroke and TIA in the elderly. In ischemic stroke patients, high CRP circulating levels within 24h from onset are associated with poor long-term functional outcome . No clear association has been found with aetiological classification of ischemic stroke. No diferences at plasma levels between hemorragic and ischemic stroke.||Stroke, Silent infarct|
|P05231||IL6||IL6 has been studied in stroke patients regarding stroke incidence, recurrence and prognosis and higher levels of IL6 have been associated with all of these endpoints. It has also been proposed as a predictor of infections. No significant association has been found between IL6 levels and aetiological subtypes of ischemic stroke||Silent infarct|
|P16581||LYAM2||E-selectin does not show significant differences in ischemic stroke patients comparet to patients with TIA when measured in plasma during the first 12 h after onset but is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. No significant association has been found between E-selectine levels and aetiological subtypes of ischemic stroke||Stroke|
|P16860||ANFB||High circulating levels of BNP/NT-proBNP are associated with poor outcome after stroke, although only minor predictive value is added to clinical information . High BNP levels indicate an embolic origin for stroke patients. Similar levels have been determined in both subtypes of stroke.||Stroke|
|P45379||TNNT2||cTnT is a cardiac marker for acute coronary syndromes. In stroke, cTnt has been associated with poor long-term prognosis and death.||Stroke|
|Q13093||PAFA||Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an inflammatory biomarker which provides information on plaque inflammation and stability. Data from epidemiological studies have shown that is a risk factor for primary and secondary ischemic stroke.||Stroke, No|
|Q15848||ADIPO||Higher adiponectin circulating levels are associated with functional disability 3 months after stroke and cardioembolic etiology. Adiponectin is related with increased risk of ischemic stroke and improves net reclassification using multivariable predicting models.||Stroke|
|Q9HD89||RETN||Changes in resistin plasma levels were observed in the course of stroke and might be associated with worse neurological deficits. Also is significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke and improves net reclassification in the traditional risk factor model.||Stroke|